Sunday, May 17, 2020

The Life of Galileo and the Effects of his Findings on Faith

The Life of Galileo and the Effects of his Findings on Faith Galileo Galilei was born in Pisa, February 18, 1564. At an early age, Galileo was interested in mathematics and the study of mechanics. His father, a onetime mathematician, pushed him towards the medical profession, which held much greater financial benefits. But the attempts of Galileo’s father were in vein as Galileo soon discovered the works of Archimedes and became extremely interested. Thus, his father reluctantly allowed the young Galileo to pursue the study of mathematics and science. Although many remember Galileo as an astronomer, his chief contributions to the world of knowledge were in the dynamic and mechanical fields of science. The first of his many†¦show more content†¦But these findings brought forth a great deal of controversy with the scholars of the day who would not accept findings contradictory to those of the great Aristotle. Under pressure, Galileo left Pisa and made his way to Florence where he held the chair of mathematics at the University of Padua for eighteen years. He was also appointed philosopher and mathematician to the Grand Duke of Tuscany. During this period, Galileo continued his study of mechanics and dynamics as found in nature. He continued to develop new theories through experimentation such as his experiments with inclined planes. Galileo hypothesized that a moving object will continue in a straight line forever without any pushes of pulls, as long as there is no interference. And through the use of the inclined pl anes, Galileo showed the speed of an object increases down a slope and decreases up the slope. Thus, he reasoned that an object on a horizontal plane would continue moving forever in the absence of friction. Furthermore, Galileo anticipated the laws of motion made famous by Newton. He gave the first entirely satisfactory demonstration of the laws of equilibrium and the principle of virtual velocity in statics. In hydrostatics, he founded the principle of floatation. And he also invented a thermoscope, which attempted to measure temperature through the contraction and expansion of gas. THE THERMOSCOPE But of all the findings and inventionsShow MoreRelatedEssay about Human Beings and Nature: The Scientific Revolution1689 Words   |  7 Pagesleaders such as Nicolaus Copernicus, Galileo Galilei, Francis Bacon, Isaac Newton, and Rene Descartes, the Scientific Revolution proves to be a crucial piece to the puzzle of understanding the effects of humansà ­ interactions with the natural world. The changes produced during the Scientific Revolution were not rapid but developed slowly and in an experimental way. Although its effects were highly influential, the forerunners Nicolaus Copernicus, Galileo Galilei, Isaac Newton, Francis BaconRead MoreThe Theory of Evolution Essay1255 Words   |  6 Pagesold. This contradicts many scientific records including fossils dated older than that. Radioactive dating shows the earth to be around 4.5 billion years old, much older than the views of Fundamental Christianity. It also rejects the foundational findings and understandings of Biology, Physics, chemistry, astrophysics and geology. (Cline, 1) Young earth creationists do not accept any scientific evidence that the earth is actually old and instead come up with reasons not testable by scientific processesRead MoreGalileo1646 Words   |  7 PagesPueblo Community College Galileo Life after punishment Joe Davalos History 102 Western Civilization II Mr. Richard L. Rollins May 1, 2014 Joseph Davalos Mr. Richard Rollins History 102 Western Civilization II April 10, 2014 Galileo: life after punishment Galileo Galilei, born February 15, 1564 was a mathematics professor a scientist, astronomer and physisist. He attended the University of Pisa to study medicine in 1583. He was fascinated with many subjects, particularlyRead MoreConflicting Ideologies : Religion Vs. Science1713 Words   |  7 Pagesdenomination of Christianity or another (Harper). Nearly all people of faith claim that their religious ideologies are positive and sensible aspects of society, but both currently and historically, religious beliefs have clashed with the values and impeded the progress of science. Both science and religious faith have their positive aspects, but the two are often incompatible and contradictory due to their vastly different approaches to finding the truth. As a result, individuals and even entire societiesRead MoreThe Enlightenment Paradigm Shift Within The Era1628 Words   |  7 Pagesstate as the Church expanded and became progressively more powerful (Laughlin, P 2016). At approximately 500 BCE, this collaboration turned to church domination as the Medieval Ages brought wealth and faith (Wilkes, A 2014). During this time there was a â€Å"†¦harmonious encounter of rea son and faith†¦Ã¢â‚¬ (Comby, J, 2001), where although the church dominated, there were scientific theories that coincided with the doctrines of the Church. â€Å"The church took on the culture of the age. Harmonious synthesisRead MoreThe Church s Showdown With Galileo1757 Words   |  8 PagesThe Roman Catholic Church has been seen, by many, as a villain in the world for many centuries. The Church’s showdown with Galileo in court is quite possibly the greatest standoff between faith and science that history has seen (Cowell). A common view of the establishment is that the Church is led by corrupt, old men who are strongly oppose scientific advancement if the science disagrees with the Church doctrine. It was all because, according to the Pope and bishops, Galileo’s â€Å"pretended discoveryRead More Sir Isaac Newtons Role in the Enlightenment Essay1558 Words   |  7 Pages Isaac Newton had a huge impact on the Enlightenment, he influenced it scientifically in many ways and he influenced faith and reason in a tremendous way. He was known more for his scientific achievements then his religious works.His background and education affected when he made these great achievements. Isaac Newton born on December 25,1642 in Woolsthorpe, England grew up, he was the most important physicist and mathematician of all time.1 Newton attended Cambridge where he studied mathematicsRead MoreWhat Were the Causes and Consequences of the Scientific Revolution and How Did It Change the World from 1500 - 1800?1611 Words   |  7 Pagesthey were thinking was starting to change. This was the beginning of the Revolution. In my opinion, one of the major and original revolutionaries of thought was Descartes. With his philosophy of â€Å"I think therefore I am† he created a whole new world of possibility that existed in a world dominated by the â€Å"Christian Matrix† His idea that purely because he could think logically and with reason, meant that he existed. This inspired other great minds of the age to think. In doing so people saw a greaterRead MoreThe Scientific Revolution And Enlightenment1267 Words   |  6 Pagesunderstand all life, humans are capable of understanding the Earth, and a sense of independence from not having to rely on the nobles or church for knowledge. Newton’s writings have had a profound effect on modern day science, astronomy, physics, as well as scientific reason. His discoveries and laws set a foundation of universal guidelines that enabled others to conduct experiments based on their own observations, while he also explained how the natural world functioned. In his ‘Principia’ he listedRead More Faith and Reason in the Enlightenment Essay2216 Words   |  9 Pages In a time when faith and hard labor kept the majority of society alive, the introduction of reason by the Enlightenment was initially perceived as a threat. People had focused on their faiths and grasped the traditions and rituals of their dogmas. The Enlightenment introduced the possibility of faith and reason coinciding and cooperating to form a more civilized and equal society to replace the Old Regime, and the changes lasted far after the period of the Enlightenment. Leading up to

Friday, May 15, 2020

Their Eyes Were Watching God Main Characters - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 4 Words: 1065 Downloads: 6 Date added: 2019/06/10 Category Literature Essay Level High school Tags: Their Eyes Were Watching God Essay Did you like this example? People are very impressed by the length of time that it took Zora to write the book, because it seems so difficult to do. The author was clearly dedicated in telling this story because she was doing it during constant work and research. Under the impression that this was a story about Janiers life, it was confusing that the story started off with her being older. The beginning is clearly the end of the story, so she is probably going to be the one telling her own story later. The people talking about how she apparently ran off with someone implies that the story she will tell is a love story. Janie walking past them just oozing confidence means that she has somehow became that way over the course of the story, which could mean that this story is also about maturing. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Their Eyes Were Watching God: Main Characters" essay for you Create order The tree is clearly a symbol for females and how the wait for bees (males) to come when they need them. She wanted to be like the tree and was ready to have a connection with someone that could make her whole, like how trees need to be pollinated by bees, and bees need pollen from trees. Janie had a dream of being in love, fulfilled, hoping that even though she was marrying someone who she did not love, her dream would still come true. After being married to Logan, she realized that it did not come so easy, and she needed to take the matter into her own hands. Jody is clearly meant to contrast Logan with what kind of people they are and how they affect Janie. They represent the different worldviews of Janie and her Nanny, with Janie wanting someone who she is physically and emotionally attached with, who can make her feel fulfilled in life, and her nanny who feels like she needs someone who can provide stability and keep her from going poor. Jody feels the need to control Janie too make her into the type of woman he wants. Shutting her down from making a speech pushed his ideals on her and prevented her from expressing herself. She is shut down and changed by him to fit the role that he wants her to fill, never allowing her her own identity. This chapter focus on the dynamic between Jody and Janie and how their relationship evolves. Jody is shown to be more and more in need of controlling Janie, making her do thing for him and shutting her down, restricting her. He even influences her when he isnt there. Jody could be seen as an antagonist at this point because hers the only one restricting Janie and providing an obstacle for her. But he isnt an antagonist, itrs just that his flawed beliefs in how women should be make him seem bad. Over the years, Jody and Janie change, Jody for the worse. He realizes that hers getting older and weaker, but Janie is still beautiful, and he envies this. There is a purposeful difference in how Jody and Janie are portrayed when getting older. Itrs also a symbol for the marriage. As they get older, the marriage deteriorates. This chapter is the culmination of all that Jody and Janies marriage is. Janie finally lets out all of her frustration on a dying Jody, realizing that hes held her back from her dreams this entire time. They berate each other and thats it. Their entire marriage seemed to fly by so fast and it seems the author intended that. Here, Janie is finally pretty much free from Jody. There are many signs here to show that she feels more free than before. Instead of keeping to herself, she thinks a lot more, realizing things that shers only subconsciously thought of, like how she hates her Nanny for how she affected her life. Janiers hair being let down is also a sign of her independence and freedom, as it was shown as a symbol of power for her earlier. When Jody had her tie her hair up, he was restricting that power. This chapter is where Tea Cake is introduced to Janie. Tea Cake clearly contrasts Janiers meeting with Jody as he seems to treat her a lot more respect, rather than just praise. The flirting and time spent between Janie and Tea Cake goes a lot more in-depth than between Janie and Jodyrs first meeting, which seemed like every time it was not very focused or glossed-over. Janie is conscientious of Tea Cake, fearing that he just wants her for her money. After falling for Jody the first time, she becomes wary of other men seemingly admiring her, but eventually she comes to realize that he actually likes her. The way the people in the town were talking about Janie is reminiscent of the way the ten people were talking about her in the beginning of the story. Because, of this, we sort of now what is going to happen, that she is going to leave with Tea Cake and eventually come back by herself, leaving it as a mystery as to why. Even though Janie is worried about Tea Cake questionable disappearing for long periods of time, she accepts the excuses he has, showing her trust. Their relationship goes on and seems almost surreal how good that itrs going. This shows where Janie feels fulfilled all over again. The relationship between the two is very good, almost too good. She tries to think that it is not like how Jody was, because he actually cares about her and her needs. Janie needs tea cake to act to her the same way she acts to him. She needs him to tell her that he does not like Nunkie. This is where it most clearly touches on the issues of race. The character of Mrs. Turner believes that being white is superior to being black. She is a product of her environment that she grew up in and convinced her of these things. Tea Cake beating Janie further shows the cracks in a relationship that, on the surface, seems perfect. It is strange that Tea Cake acts this way. The way the author just brushes over this though could imply that this is just a side effect of the time period that the author lived in, where domestic violence was a more acceptable part of life back then.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Argumentative Essay Paralyzed - 1468 Words

Paralyzed I sit there quietly, watching as every ball goes swiftly through the mesh. The sound of shoes squeaking against the newly polished floor and every bounce echoing throughout the gymnasium has now started to become a headache. The blow of a whistle brings everyone to a sudden halt, and each player turns towards the coach awaiting his next instruction. I was becoming quite uncomfortable now, as almost half an hour had gone by and sweat was beginning to form by my hairline. It was a daily routine for me; coming to these practices and watching the coach give his advice as if I would ever be able to play the sport I once loved again. It has been almost a year now since it happened. Being there at the wrong time and at the wrong place†¦show more content†¦Loved. The word stung me like a thousand bees and had felt so foreign on my tongue. I knew I would never be able to see the pride in my father’s eyes, nor the tears of joy that would show how happy he would have been of me. But most of all, I knew I was no longer able to feel the hardwood floor when I would push off the ground and hear the swish of the ball going through the net. A sense of hopelessness had come over me and I knew I could no longer go back to the game, it was pointless to even try. *** I see my father in the bleachers cheering with pride as the crowd roars with excitement. Cold stone sweat rolls down my face from the scorching dry air. The intense pressure on both teams for the championship has forced the players to tighten their defense. The screeching sound of the whistle breaks the tension between the enemy team. The game commences. These last 24 seconds determines the fate of the final round – the championship is now at stake. I look at the score, and the odds are in no one’s favor, it read â€Å"101-99.† I stand facing my opponent waiting for my teammate to throw the ball in, and every player including the opposing team knows what the game plan is. The shot clock begins and the ball is immediately passed towards me as I drive to the net. With every bounce and step I take, the adrenaline surges through my veins, pushing me to my limit. I can hear my heartbeat pounding loudly with my uneven breathing as I dribble down the court crossing over myShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of Nancy Mairs s On Being A Cripple1187 Words   |  5 PagesNancy Mairs is the author of the controversial essay On Being a Cripple. Here, she writes of her experiences dealing with the degenerative disease, Multiple Sclerosis, on a daily basis as well as her preferences on the proper terms are for what to call a person who is disabilities. Although she uses the term crippled to describe herself, she believes that no one should use it to describe another. Her argument, though it stands on unstable grounds, is effective in bringing attention in sharing oneRead MoreEssay Writing7014 Words   |  29 Pagesfor in narrative essay writing I am assuming that the student is able to construct basic sentence and grammar structure (past amp; present tense etc.). If the student is unable to do so, he/she is in no condition to attempt essay writing. Please sign the student for basic language/ grammar classes instead. There is a limit to how much advice I can offer via text. So I will just offer two key points. 1. ESSAY FLOW 2. CHARACTERS’ EMOTIONS / FEELINGS * 1. Essay Flow Essay flow means no breakRead MoreLogical Reasoning189930 Words   |  760 Pagesown conclusion, then its your responsibility to give them reasons they can appreciate. Lets examine that last remark. A conclusion backed up by one or more reasons in any order is called an argument, even when the reasoner is not being argumentative or disagreeable. The word â€Å"argument† is a technical term we will be using frequently in this course. Being logical means, among other things, that you should give an argument to support your conclusion if you expect other people to accept itRead MoreLibrary Management204752 Words   |  820 Pagesdecentralization are several. First, the decisions to be made in many organizations are so numerous that if they are centralized, the manager may be overwhelmed by the amount of decision making that needs to be done. The organization may therefore become paralyzed by the inaction of these managers. Today, more libraries allow decisions to be made at the levels in the organization at which the most information about these decisions exists. This greater access to inclusion in the decision-making process is contraryRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 Pages Ethical Dilemma 33 within a year of earning his bachelor’s degree. His salary is $27,000 per year. His wife is an attorney and earns approximately $50,000 per year. Lu is 26 years old and single with a master’s degree in education. He is paralyzed and confined to a wheelchair as a result of an auto accident. He earns $32,000 per year. Maria is a single, 22-year-old woman born and raised in Mexico. She came to the United States only 3 months ago, and her English needs considerable improvementRead MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words   |  1617 Pagessolvers and decision makers who prefer to deal with technical tasks and straightforward, prescribed problems rather than social or interpersonal issues. They excel at problems that have one correct answer. Multiple-choice exams are preferred over essay exams. Research has suggested that these individuals are inclined toward careers in technology, engineering, and law. In college, students with a knowing style tend to major in the phys ical sciences, engineering, law, and computers. In business, they

The Ottoman Empire And Islamic Terrorism - 1193 Words

The Ottoman Empire and Islamic Terrorism Florida International University By Melinda Persaud November 7, 2014 Introduction What is known today as modern-day Turkey, was once one of the most powerful empires in the world. They referred to this imperial state as the Ottoman Empire. The Purpose of the empire was to gain land , and spread their Islamic teachings. With this they had created a thirteenth century empire led by Osman, the founder of the Ottoman Empire. Osman surrounded himself with strong solders who specialized in ambushes, and hit and run tactics, they referred to these highly trained soldiers as â€Å"Janissaries†. The empire they built was the largest and most dominant of the Muslim empires. The decline of the Ottoman Empire led to terrorist movements, specifically Islamic terrorism. Wanting to spread their beliefs through violence, Islamic terrorist groups began to try to overpower certain nations. It not only existed in the later history but still seems to play a big role even today. This has spread throughout the world from the horrific tragedy of the World Trade Cente r all the way to the multiple bombings in the London Underground. One main terrorist group that has our focus today would be ISIS whose purpose is to create an Islamic state. This is only one example of a current Islamic terrorist group. Power, religion, and beliefs are what seem to make up the goal of what these Islamic terrorist groups are trying to allow. TheShow MoreRelatedThe Ottoman Empire And Islamic Terrorism1345 Words   |  6 Pages Topical Essay 1 The Ottoman Empire and Islamic Terrorism Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for Global Terrorism Florida International University By Melinda J. Persaud November 7, 2014 Introduction What is known today as modern-day Turkey, was once one of the most powerful empires in the world. They referred to this imperial state as the Ottoman Empire. The Purpose of the empire was to expand their territory, and spread their Islamic teachings. With this theyRead MoreThe Rise Of Terrorist Groups During The Middle East1328 Words   |  6 Pagesextremism and solve the problem permanently, the world and its inhabitants must deracinate this menace from its roots. Aside from religious fundamentalism, a large portion of the problem lies in the modern history of the Middle East. When the Ottoman Empire collapsed in 1920, combined British and French politicians, scholars, archaeologists, military officers and colonial administrators arbitrarily divided up the boundaries of the newly created nations in the Sykes-Picot agreement. In effect, theyRead MoreIslam, by Karen Armstrong762 Words   |  4 Pagesof the Quran in Mecca. Islams reputation of promoting a strict and controlling government, female oppression, civil war, and terrorism is not completely correct. Islam is a rich and complex religion that is often misunderstood in the modern world. There have been many obstacles that have been faced. Islam wouldnt exist today with its leaders, the Crusades, and their empires. The most important leader was, of course, Muhammad. He basically set up Islam and preached and converted many to this religionRead More The Media and Mass Misinterpretation of Islam Essays893 Words   |  4 Pagestimes been misunderstood not only as to the values it preaches, but also in relation to its core beliefs. Although in today’s post September 11th world Islam and its followers, who are also known as Muslims, tend to be associated with acts of terrorism, the Middle East and anti-American beliefs, Islam at its core is radically different than what most people perceive it to be. Being the fastest-growing religion in the world, Islam’s 1.2 billion practitioners reside throughout the hemispheres. AlthoughRead MoreTerrorism and Homeland Security1138 Words   |  5 PagesTerrorism and Homeland Security Answer to Question 2 Hamas was founded in 1987 and its aim was to address Palestinian quest for nation statehood and their consequent grievances (Herzog, 2006). The writer explains that the name is acronym in Arabic for Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiya or the Islamic Resistance Movement. The groups ideology, the writer explains was outlined in its covenant of 1998. The covenant stipulates that the land of Palestine is an Islamic endowment. It stipulates that theRead MoreThe Colonization Of The Ottoman Empire After World War I929 Words   |  4 PagesThe colonization of Muslim territories began with the rise of European empires, the conquest of India, the scramble for Africa, and its last phase included the division of the Arab territories of the Ottoman Empire after World War I. An economic system began to take shape in the later 17th century but fully matured in the 19th century, once the European powers had established economic and political predominance around the world through the establishment of c olonies and the exercise of aggressiveRead MoreSeptember 11 Attacks and Nationalist Terrorist Groups Essay1414 Words   |  6 PagesTerrorism Paper 11/16/09 There are several terrorist groups throughout the world today. All the terrorist groups have one common goal and that is to rid the world of Americans and western influence from the Muslim world. There is one organization that has ties to most of all the terrorist groups in the world and is the most infamous group in the world today and that is the group called Al-Qaeda The word Al-Qaeda means â€Å"the base† in Muslim. As an international terrorist organization led by OsamaRead More Terrorism and the Pursuit of God Essay example648 Words   |  3 PagesTerrorism and the Pursuit of God To set out on a suicide mission, to willingly kill thousands of civilians seems unfathomable for many Americans in the wake of the tragedy of September 11, 2001. Why would anyone do something like that? The answer from many sources has been: religion. More specifically, many people are blaming the Islamic religion, the religion that the hijackers are suspected to adhere to, claiming that Islam reveres its martyrs and sanctions war. But the answer is muchRead MoreMedia Portrayal of Islam Essay760 Words   |  4 PagesWesterners are often wary of Muslims. In contrast to what the media portrays, Islam is a peaceful religion, which does not promote violence or terrorism. Islamic stereotypes are not new to Western culture. Problems can be traced back to the time of the Crusades, when Christians and Muslims were vying for control of Jerusalem. At that time, the spread of Ottoman and Moorish control in Europe started to threaten the position of the Christian Church and the ruling class. The governments, churches, andRead MoreThe Rule Of The Ottoman Empire1637 Words   |  7 Pagesas 1516, Syria has been known to be ruled under Ottoman Turks Empire for well over several centuries. In 1916 Arabs and British military collaborated together and rebelled against Turkish rules. This allowed independence over the Turks for Arab countries and ending 400 years of supreme political power of the Ottoman Empire. After many years of restructuring Syria economics, social, and political fields, they combined the Ottoman, French, and Islamic laws up until the 1980’s. The criminal, civil,

Theories of learning free essay sample

Introduction:Theories of learning have been developed, argued and challenged extensively over the past century and yet we can continue to debate which method of teaching encourages the most effective learning.Throughout the 1900s psychologists and educators have developed learning theories from observations, research and an innate curiosity to know more about how and why children learn in different ways.The act of learning has been described in countless ways by countless people both past and present. However, it is the process of how exactly children learn that usually sparks the most fascinating discussions.From a number of psychologists and theorists, in a little over the last century we have come to learn that there are many different types of learning and teaching styles. In the following essay we will look at some constructivists theories and how these methods differ and how each can be applied and put into practice in an early years setting. Constructivism:Constructivism is a theory about knowledge and learning. It describes both what knowing is and how one comes to know (Fosnot, 2004). It is a learning theory found in psychology which explains how people might acquire knowledge and learn and it has a direct application to education (Sydney.edu.au, 2018). It is an approach to teaching and learning based on the idea that learning is the result of mental construction, meaning that students learn by fitting new information together with what they knew previously (Deiner, 2010). The constructivist theory aims to allow the student the freedom to use their own thoughts, curiosity and motivation to learn. The teacher or director acts mostly as a facilitator to the needs of the learner, the learner occupies the top position rather than the teacher. Hands-on, project-based and task-based learning are just a few applications that base teaching and learning on constructivism.Piaget:In the past constructivist ideas were not highly valued due to peoples beliefs that a childs play was aimless and of little importance, Piaget was one of the first to disagree with these old-style views. He thought that play was necessary for a childs cognitive development, he went on to provide scientific evidence for his views and today constructivist theories influence how people teach and learn all over the world (Boy and Pine, 1999).He believed that thinking is in a way an extension of biological adaptation. The two basic processes of the mechanism are accommodation and assimilation. Accommodation occurs when a child adjusts or alters their way of thinking to make sense of new information that they cannot explain by their existing way of thinking. Assimilation occurs when they incorporate new information into existing information (Sheehy, 2006).Before psychologists such as John Dewey and Jean Piaget articulated the idea of constructivism, teaching methods relied heavily on behaviourists theories such as that of Skinner or Pavlov. Teaching was very much a practice of finding an action that could cause a reaction in a student causing said student to behave in a manner that the teacher deemed appropriate. Learning was through didactic measures and rote learning. Piaget is one of the first to encourage the move from behaviourism to constructivism in teaching and still has a huge impact on how we as teachers learn to teach todayPiaget believed that people constructed new information from past knowledge and experiences (Robins, 2012). He believed that intellectual growth is continuous he also believed that certain mental abilities were stronger at certain stages of development. He developed four stages of cognitive development and believed that every person would go through each stage at some point, he also believed that everyone would pass through the stages in the same order but at a different time. His four stages of cognitive development are:†¢ The sensory motor stage. Piaget believed this stage of development took place between the ages of birth and two years. It is known as the action stage and occurs before language is developed.†¢ The Pre-operational stage: This stage is when the child is between the ages of two and seven years old. The key feature of this stage is a childs egocentrism. During this time Piaget believed a child cannot yet take other peoples points of view into consideration.†¢ The Concrete Operational Stage: This occurs when the child is between the ages of seven and eleven years old. During this stage the egocentrism declines and the child matures, and they learn to cooperate with others.†¢ The Formal Operational stage: The last and final stage in Piagets theory is when the child is between the ages of 11 and 15 or 16. Piaget believed that a child was capable of the highest level of thinking.Paget did not believe in forcing information on children while they passively sat in the classroom but instead thought the learning experience should be shared. He believed the role of the teacher should be to guide the students and recommended that teachers play an active mentoring role in the classroom. He believed it was important that children should learn not only from the guidance of the teacher but also their peers. He also thought that making mistakes was a key factor in a childs learning experience, he believed that children learn a huge amount about the world from trial and error (Schlinger, 1995). Montessori:Maria Montessori first qualified as a doctor and it was while she was working in a psychiatric clinic after she qualified that she developed her interest in education. Her interest was originally peeked by children with learning difficulties. While working with these children she developed a methodology which she believed would address the learning needs of all children. In 1907 Montessori opened her first Childrens House, the very famous Casa Dei Bambini. Montessori used her own materials in the childrens house that she had developed while working with children with learning or developmental difficulties. She adopted innovative approaches to pedagogy, the curriculum and the layout of the classroom. From her observations in the classroom she developed a precise and insightful analysis of the potential of each child when using her resources (Biography of Dr. Maria Montessori | Montessori Australia Foundation, 2018). Over time she developed her own methodology through observing how children acquired and understood information.Maria Montessori based her method on a few key components.†¢ Respect for the child- She believed that adults seldom if ever, truly respected a child. As adults we tend to force information onto a child without taking their individual learning needs into consideration. Montessori developed her method to allow each child to have choices which she believed would promote independent learning (O Donnell, 2013).†¢ The Absorbent Mind – Montessori believed that all children had an innate capacity to learn and the teacher or directress is just the facilitator of this learning. She believed that a stimulating classroom layout, her materials and blocks of uninterrupted time to learn would allow students to gain the most from their learning experiences.†¢ Sensitive Periods – Montessori believed that there were certain times during a childs development where they were more receptive to learning new skills. It is the role of the directress to observe when a sensitive period is occurring and provide the correct materials and environment to accommodate the childs learning.†¢ The prepared environment – A Montessori classroom is aesthetically pleasing to both a child and an adult. It is organized in a manner which allows the child access to the materials they want or need to use at different times and it presents the materials in an orderly format to the students.†¢ Autoeducation – Montessori believed that children can educate themselves. It is the role of the teacher to provide an environment that allows a child the freedom to educate themselves. Montessori also had planes of development, she divided her stages into age brackets and made guidelines of what typically occurs during each stage.†¢ Birth to Age 6 -This is often considered the most important time of a childs development. The foundation for everything a child will learn is laid at this time. At this point a child absorbs information and is learning to organize themselves physically. During the first half of this developmental plane, zero to three, the child is absorbing information effortlessly and unconsciously and during the second part of the plane, three to six, the child is consciously learning new information. Montessori believes that learning this huge amount of information is made easier by the sensitive periods.†¢ Ages 6 to 12 – During this period Montessori believes that the absorbent mind has come to an end and now students are learning through logic and reasoning. At this age the child is naturally curious about everything, inquisitive an eager to learn. They are also developing their conscience and learning between right and wrong.†¢ Ages 12 to 18 – At this age the student is busy constructing their social self. They are becoming more independent and are looking to find their own place in the society.†¢ Ages 18–24 – Montessori believed at this point in the young adults life they are busy constructing self-understanding. They have developed physically, emotionally, morally and ethnically and are now questioning who they are and where they belong as people in society.The links between Jean Piaget and Maria Montessori. The theories of both Piaget and Montessori were revolutionary for their time and became greatly respected in later years. From the beginning we can see obvious links between Piaget and Montessori, although he was a psychologist and she an educationalist there are many shared ideas between the two. He was twenty-six years younger than her and during his early career he carried out observations in one of her schools and was also president of the Swiss Montessori society so perhaps it is not surprising that they share some of the same ideologies. Both believed that children construct their own knowledge, they both agreed that children were not just adults in small bodies and learn in different ways. Both proposed that children develop in sequence and both developed their own stages of development. Although Piaget and Montessori were similar in their thinking, they had very different approaches to teaching. While Montessori believed that children learned the most in her first development al plane, 0-6, Piaget believed that no real learning takes place before a child turns seven. The developmental process:Piagets stages of development can be compared to Montessoris planes of development. Although there are many differences between them the initial idea is very similar. Both theories of development can also be witnessed in classrooms everywhere today.The initial phase of each of the developmental stages is concerned with the sensory development of a child. In almost all early years classrooms learning is enhanced by sensory play. It may be a sensory corner in the classroom, a common area or activities carried out throughout the day, but sensory materials are a huge part of a childs developmental process at this age.Look at a toddler room in almost any early years setting, at the very least they have a sand and water tray for children to experiment with different textures and materials. The will have mirrors for the child to grasp the concept of their own reflection and give them the freedom to explore their own facial features. There are songs and nursery rhymes as well as shakers or musical instruments. The whole room will be full of interesting colourful materials which appeal to one or more of a childs senses encouraging sensory stimulation for learning. Another example of sensory materials can be seen when a child is developing writing skills in the classroom. Montessori developed the sandpaper letters for a child to experience the letter, not just see it but feel it. A child uses their finger to trace the letter ever before beginning to form the letter with a pencil on paper. In a typical classroom of this age, one which does not follow Montessoris method, we can still find similar ideas showing us that Piaget and Montessori were correct in that children learn through their senses. In my current classroom just one example I use are salt trays with coloured paper underneath the salt and when the child forms the letter the colour paper is exposed. The child becomes familiar with the letter and how to from it correctly.The environment:Piaget and Montessori agreed that a childs environment was a very influential factor in their development. Piagets theory stressed the need for children to be actively involved in constructing knowledge of their physical environment (Piaget, 1952) and Montessori believed that a prepared environment would facilitate maximum independent learning.Today both these concepts are a part of daily school life. In the past a classroom was designed to have rows of desks all facing a teacher, now however we are aware that the environment stimulates the students, that giving the opportunity to choose the method of learning we see better academic results.A few aspects of both theorists are evident in most classrooms today whether we realise it. Most teachers in the early years sector and the beginning years of primary school set up their classrooms to have areas.

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Characteristics of Gothic Literature free essay sample

The Gothic In 1798 an anonymous author published a commentary that revealed exactly how some writers received the Gothic during this time: â€Å" Take—An old castle, half of it ruinous A long gallery, with a great many doors, some secret ones. Three murdered bodies, quite fresh. As many skeletons, in chests and presses. An old woman hanging by the neck; with her throat cut. Assassins and desperadoes, quant. suff. Noises, whispers, and groans, threescore at least. † (1-7) After reading many of the selections in the anthology, I found this poem on a Gothic’s â€Å"recipe† to be quite true (602). However, in the case of this anonymous writer, he considers all of these characteristics to be negative. I, on the other hand, find it very intriguing that this type of novel developed in a time ruled by writers whose main focus was politics and poetry. Many influential writers including Coleridge and Wordsworth criticized the characteristics, morality, purpose, and significance of these novels; however, I believe many of the features they disliked actually broadened the scope of literature. The Gothic novel was often attacked for being too formulaic. Although the specifics of the plot changed from novel to novel, the characteristics were often similar, which is something that is pointed out repeatedly by the Gothic’s critics. The similarities encountered in the characteristics of these novels include the setting, mystery, and characters to name a few. The setting of this type of novel is usually in a castle of sorts, or in some other mysterious place that produces suspense and terror within the reader. Although these settings were often alike, they â€Å"exist to convey the atmosphere† and are used â€Å"for ends that are fundamentally psychological† (Hume 286). This characteristic is one that set up the entire feeling of the novel, one of suspense, horror, and mystery. The setting of various novels was not uniform because it was the easy or obvious choice like many critics believed, but because it created a certain atmosphere that was needed for the plot. If the story had been set on a sunny beach, the atmosphere would have been much different and the reader would not get the same affect. Like the settings, the mysteries that develop within Gothic novels are usually somewhat similar. From what I have come across, many include a murder or deep, dark secret that is unraveled by an ordinary person. While this may support Wordsworth’s claim that these novels are â€Å"sickly and stupid German tragedies† because of their straightforward plot, I find them to be quite interesting (266). These mysteries create suspense, and were the first â€Å"page-turners† that were ever written. Readers no longer had to decipher long and complicated meanings from pieces such as the â€Å"Lucy Gray† poems; instead, they could sit back, relax, and enjoy these novels that created an escape into a mysterious world. Another piece of the â€Å"formula† that was important to the genre were the characters that were used throughout the novels. The characters were often simple people who were thrown into a situation that required extraordinary actions. While the simplicity of the characters was often criticized by writers who considered themselves to be â€Å"high culture,† these characters had the ability to â€Å"involve the reader in special circumstances† (Hume 286). Unlike the pieces that came before them, the Gothic novel had the capacity to draw the reader in, and put them in the shoes of the main character. For me, it was very hard to feel for the personas in earlier poems that we came across. I think the main reason for this is that the characters tended to be somewhat generic, but interesting. They allowed for anyone to understand the character and immerse themselves within the character’s thoughts. They also allowed for people to sink in to a particular character and feel the terror that they were feeling. Another aspect of the Gothic that was often called into question was the morality of the characters and authors. There are many instances in which these novels incorporated grotesque scenes that included rape and murder among many other things. In The Monk by Matthew Lewis the main character, Ambrosia, is a virtuous and ethical man who seduced by the demon Matilda. In one scene â€Å"his desires were raised to that frantic height by which brutes are agitated†¦ and [he] hastily proceeded to tear off those garments which impeded the gratification of his lust† (598). Ambrosia is obviously an immoral character, and he is criticized for not being so. To me, it seems like critics were getting to the point where they were trying to find anything and everything to criticize about the Gothic novel. While this genre may involve some unseemly characters, they are needed in order to create an interesting plot. Having some sort of villain is necessary in any type of writing that has a mystery or murder involved. Without villains, we cannot have heroes, and both are very important aspects of literature. Coleridge, for example, not only attacked The Monk as a novel but also attacked Lewis as a person for having the ability to create such an immoral character. He believed that â€Å"the merit of a novelist is in proportion†¦ to the pleasurable effect which he produces (604). I highly disagree with this statement because I believe controversy affects change, and change is needed in order to forward society. Novelists and poets were no longer writing poems that had the sole purpose of making a person feel good or empowered; instead, they were writing for entertainment. Also, many of the writers before The Monk addressed political issues that were not considered pleasurable, but controversial and hard to confront. Coleridge’s statement seems to contradict everything that literature stands for. Authors and the literature they create are unpleasant at times, and that is not wrong—it is merely a necessity for the forward movement of society and evolution of literature. Another important issue to address when it comes to these novels is their specific purpose. It seems that every literary movement in history had some sort of motive or driving force behind them. For the Gothic, this driving force or purpose seems to be to induce terror while entertaining. Before this movement, we never really encountered works of literature that were straightforward, suspenseful, and enjoyable all at the same time. In an essay by Aikin and Aikin, they claimed that people would â€Å"rather chuse to suffer the smart pang of a violent emotion than the uneasy craving of an unsatisfied desire† (584). By this, they mean that terror is pleasurable, and that is exactly what these novels delivered to their readers. It was not an emotion that was regularly produced when readers came into contact with the typical works of this time. For a piece of literature to induce such error was something novel and interesting that affected many of their readers. Because terror is an emotion that is hard to come by, these novels were, like I said, an escape for readers. Terror is not something that a person wants to encounter in their real life, but is something they can enjoy and acquire through reading these novels. Their purpose was not to confuse the reader with complicated meanings full of allusions. Instead, these terrifying novels have the ability to â€Å"render the poorest and most insipid narrative interesting when once we get fairly into it† (584). Although many of the authors of Gothic novels may not have been the best composers compared to standards during this time, they were still able to draw in a huge audience because they gave the people what they wanted. I would not consider the narratives â€Å"insipid,† but compared to the works that came before them, they were much simpler and used language that was not considered to be as articulate. This simplicity that is encountered when reading a piece of Gothic work, though criticized, says much about how society was changing during this time. These novels significantly altered the way in which literature was composed and whom it was available to. Instead of being read by the elite few, it was accessible to pretty much anyone who could read. During this time, the percent of literate people was rising rapidly, especially in the middle class. These books appealed to these people, and sold millions upon millions of copies because of this. I think that much of the distaste that so-called â€Å"high culture† writers had for these novels is because of their success. They were extremely popular, more so than the most popular of the poets during this time. For example, Wordsworth was said to be a commercialized version of â€Å"real† poetry because it was easier to understand than many other pieces out during this time. However, he never even came close to selling as many copies of Lyrical Ballads as the Gothic writers did with their own works. For Wordsworth to criticize a genre that feeds off of the readers’ ability to comprehend seems to be extremely hypocritical of him. Also, I think that when something appeals to the masses, it is a good thing. Change cannot occur unless everyone is on the same page, and that is what the Gothic provided to the people. Finally, I would like to confront just how significant this movement is to the literature we have today. This was the first time we encounter a genre that is similar to the types of genres we see today. The Gothic genre was criticized because the novels were too alike—but that is exactly what a genre is, according to today’s standards. One could argue that the novels that are published today are not of the same caliber as novels published 50, 100, or 200 years ago. And maybe that is true, but is it necessarily bad? In my opinion, having novels that are more accessible to more people makes for a better, more unified society. Having works of literature that are too complicated, wordy, or abstract leads to more ambiguity, and eventually creates a divide among social classes. I am not saying that all written works should be easy to understand, but I do think that the Gothic novel was the first in a wave of works of literature that helped society grow more literate. Finally, scholars and everyday people were able to read and talk about the same kinds of things. Although scholars who thought they were better writers were constantly criticizing it, they could not appeal to the masses. Gothic literature had the ability to do this, and you can still see its influence in novels on shelves today. It has a definite place in literary history, and should not be overlooked. It may not have had the deepest plots or the most complicated characters, but the genre had an impact during the 18th century, and continues to have an impact today.

Friday, April 17, 2020

The One Best Strategy You Need to Be Using for In a Research Paper a Thesis Statement Should Unveiled

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